Glaucoma is an eye disorder resulting in damage to the optic nerve and leading to vision loss. It is mainly caused due to the pressure buildup in the fluid of the eye.
A healthy eye produces a fluid called as “Aqueous Humor” that circulates in front of the eye. Excess fluid produced is drained out by the eye through the trabecular meshwork, thus maintaining a constant pressure. In glaucoma condition the excess fluid does not get drained out properly, thus increasing the pressure in the eyes, and overtime, the increased pressure causes damage to the optic nerve.
This increase of pressure in the eye is called as Interoccular Pressure (IOP). When not treated in the early stages glaucoma can cause permanent loss of vision. The causes of optic nerve damage from glaucoma is not fully understood, it is therefore advised that one should to see your eye doctor regularly so that glaucoma can be diagnosed.
There are two types of Glaucoma: depending on the angle of the trabecular meshwork :
i) Open angle glaucoma
Open angle glaucoma is the most common form of glaucoma. It occurs when trabecular meshwork of the eye gradually becomes less efficient at draining out the aqueous humor. This increases the pressure on the optic nerve that might lead to loss vision.
ii)Angle closure glaucoma
Angle closure glaucoma is a more acute form of glaucoma, where the drainage angle of the eye becomes completely blocked. In this condition the pressure builds very rapidly on the optic nerve.
Symptoms of glaucoma:
In most cases glaucoma is undetected until in advanced stages, where the condition and damage to optic nerve becomes irreversible.
Following symptoms and warning signs can help understand the condition.
i) Trouble adjusting to dark rooms
ii) Squinting or blinking due to unusual sensitivity to eyes
iii) Dark spot at center of viewing
iv) Recurring pain in and around the eyes.
v) Flashes of light or black spots
vi)Losing vision in one eye
Surgery of glaucoma:
i) Laser: An effective way to treat glaucoma condition is a Laser surgery. Laser surgery enhances the drainage function to control eye pressure within the eye.
In Angle closure glaucoma small openings are made with help of laser to drain out the excess fluid.
ii) Operative Surgery: In operative surgery the surgeon uses a microscope and specialized instruments to create a new drainage channel for the fluid
Post surgery care::
i) The recovery time for a patient is anywhere between 6 to 12 weeks, depending on each individual.
ii) Eye drops to be used to increase healing and to avoid infection.
iii) Regular check up with doctor.
iv) Resume daily activities after doctors consent
Elite eye hospital, Mumbai is a modern and well-equipped hospital with a wide range of facilities.